Treg cells; Tbet; Th1-like Tregs; inflammatory bowel disease; inflammation; INFLAMMATORY-BOWEL-DISEASE; INTERFERON-GAMMA; COLONIC-MUCOSA;. T-bet Antikörper (4B10) ist ein monoklonaler Anti-T-bet Antikörper, der m, r, und h T-bet in WB, IP, IF, FCM und ELISA detektiert. Zitiert in Publikationen. Jetzt Anti-TBX21 (T-Box 21, T-PET, T-bet, TBET, TBLYM), Artikelnummer: von United States Biological bei Biomol kaufen!
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The period that followed is known traditionally as the Era of Fragmentation , when political control over Tibet became divided between regional warlords and tribes with no dominant centralized authority.
An Islamic invasion from Bengal took place in One of the department's purposes was to select a dpon-chen 'great administrator' , usually appointed by the lama and confirmed by the Mongol emperor in Beijing.
Mongol rule of Tibet remained separate from the main provinces of China, but the region existed under the administration of the Yuan dynasty.
If the Sakya lama ever came into conflict with the dpon-chen , the dpon-chen had the authority to send Chinese troops into the region.
Tibet retained nominal power over religious and regional political affairs, while the Mongols managed a structural and administrative  rule over the region, reinforced by the rare military intervention.
This existed as a " diarchic structure" under the Yuan emperor, with power primarily in favor of the Mongols. The following 80 years saw the founding of the Gelug school also known as Yellow Hats by the disciples of Je Tsongkhapa , and the founding of the important Ganden , Drepung and Sera monasteries near Lhasa.
However, internal strife within the dynasty and the strong localism of the various fiefs and political-religious factions led to a long series of internal conflicts.
In they were overthrown by the Tsangpa Dynasty of Shigatse which expanded its power in different directions of Tibet in the following decades and favoured the Karma Kagyu sect.
The 5th Dalai Lama is known for unifying the Tibetan heartland under the control of the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism , after defeating the rival Kagyu and Jonang sects and the secular ruler, the Tsangpa prince, in a prolonged civil war.
His efforts were successful in part because of aid from Güshi Khan , the Oirat leader of the Khoshut Khanate. With Güshi Khan as a largely uninvolved overlord, the 5th Dalai Lama and his intimates established a civil administration which is referred to by historians as the Lhasa state.
This Tibetan regime or government is also referred to as the Ganden Phodrang. According to the mythology of the time, there would be in Tibet "many Christians" and "churches richly ornamented with images of Our Lord Jesus Christ and of Our Lady".
The Portuguese missionary spoke Persian, the literary and commercial language of the region. The missionary also noted that "the majority of the population was very welcoming".
Even so, there were "numerous flocks of sheep, goats and horses" and "there was no lack of meat or butter".
Qing dynasty rule in Tibet began with their expedition to the country when they expelled the invading Dzungars. Amdo came under Qing control in , and eastern Kham was incorporated into neighbouring Chinese provinces in In the Ambans and the majority of the Han Chinese and Manchus living in Lhasa were killed in a riot , and Qing troops arrived quickly and suppressed the rebels in the next year.
Like the preceding Yuan dynasty, the Manchus of the Qing dynasty exerted military and administrative control of the region, while granting it a degree of political autonomy.
The Qing commander publicly executed a number of supporters of the rebels and, as in and , made changes in the political structure and drew up a formal organization plan.
The Qing now restored the Dalai Lama as ruler, leading the governing council called Kashag ,  but elevated the role of Ambans to include more direct involvement in Tibetan internal affairs.
At the same time the Qing took steps to counterbalance the power of the aristocracy by adding officials recruited from the clergy to key posts.
For several decades, peace reigned in Tibet, but in the Qing Qianlong Emperor sent a large Chinese army into Tibet to push the invading Nepalese out.
This prompted yet another Qing reorganization of the Tibetan government, this time through a written plan called the "Twenty-Nine Regulations for Better Government in Tibet".
Qing military garrisons staffed with Qing troops were now also established near the Nepalese border. In the Sikh Empire invaded and annexed Ladakh , a culturally Tibetan region that was an independent kingdom at the time.
A Qing-Tibetan army repelled the invaders but was in turn defeated when it chased the Sikhs into Ladakh. The war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Chushul between the Chinese and Sikh empires.
As the Qing dynasty weakened, its authority over Tibet also gradually declined, and by the midth century its influence was minuscule.
Qing authority over Tibet had become more symbolic than real by the late 19th century,     although in the s the Tibetans still chose for reasons of their own to emphasize the empire's symbolic authority and make it seem substantial.
His efforts, while largely unsuccessful, established permanent contact between Tibet and the Western world. In , a British expedition to Tibet , spurred in part by a fear that Russia was extending its power into Tibet as part of the Great Game , was launched.
Although the expedition initially set out with the stated purpose of resolving border disputes between Tibet and Sikkim , it quickly turned into a military invasion.
The British expeditionary force, consisting of mostly Indian troops , quickly invaded and captured Lhasa, with the Dalai Lama fleeing to the countryside.
The Qing imperial resident, known as the Amban , publicly repudiated the treaty, while the British government, eager for friendly relations with China, negotiated a new treaty two years later known as the Convention Between Great Britain and China Respecting Tibet.
The British agreed not to annex or interfere in Tibet in return for an indemnity from the Chinese government, while China agreed not to permit any other foreign state to interfere with the territory or internal administration of Tibet.
In , the Qing government sent a military expedition of its own under Zhao Erfeng to establish direct Manchu-Chinese rule and, in an imperial edict, deposed the Dalai Lama, who fled to British India.
Zhao Erfeng defeated the Tibetan military conclusively and expelled the Dalai Lama's forces from the province.
His actions were unpopular, and there was much animosity against him for his mistreatment of civilians and disregard for local culture. After the Xinhai Revolution —12 toppled the Qing dynasty and the last Qing troops were escorted out of Tibet, the new Republic of China apologized for the actions of the Qing and offered to restore the Dalai Lama's title.
During this time, Tibet fought Chinese warlords for control of the ethnically Tibetan areas in Xikang and Qinghai parts of Kham and Amdo along the upper reaches of the Yangtze River.
The Chinese government denounced the agreement as illegal. When in the s and s the regents displayed negligence in affairs, the Kuomintang Government of the Republic of China took advantage of this to expand its reach into the territory.
Emerging with control over most of mainland China after the Chinese Civil War , the People's Republic of China incorporated Tibet in and negotiated the Seventeen Point Agreement with the newly enthroned 14th Dalai Lama 's government, affirming the People's Republic of China's sovereignty but granting the area autonomy.
Subsequently, on his journey into exile, the 14th Dalai Lama completely repudiated the agreement, which he has repeated on many occasions.
The Dalai Lama had a strong following as many people from Tibet looked at him not just as their political leader, but as their spiritual leader.
Afterwards, the Central People's Government in Beijing renounced the agreement and began implementation of the halted social and political reforms.
In , General Secretary and reformist Hu Yaobang visited Tibet and ushered in a period of social, political, and economic liberalization.
The government halted reforms and started an anti- separatist campaign. All of modern China, including Tibet, is considered a part of East Asia.
Tibet has some of the world's tallest mountains, with several of them making the top ten list. Several major rivers have their source in the Tibetan Plateau mostly in present-day Qinghai Province.
Tibet has been called the "Water Tower" of Asia, and China is investing heavily in water projects in Tibet. The mountain is a holy pilgrimage site for both Hindus and Tibetans.
The Hindus consider the mountain to be the abode of Lord Shiva. The Tibetan name for Mt. Kailash is Khang Rinpoche.
Tibet has numerous high-altitude lakes referred to in Tibetan as tso or co. Western passes receive small amounts of fresh snow each year but remain traversible all year round.
Low temperatures are prevalent throughout these western regions, where bleak desolation is unrelieved by any vegetation bigger than a low bush, and where wind sweeps unchecked across vast expanses of arid plain.
The Indian monsoon exerts some influence on eastern Tibet. Northern Tibet is subject to high temperatures in the summer and intense cold in the winter.
Cultural Tibet consists of several regions. These include Amdo A mdo in the northeast, which is administratively part of the provinces of Qinghai, Gansu and Sichuan.
Kham Khams in the southeast encompasses parts of western Sichuan, northern Yunnan , southern Qinghai and the eastern part of the Tibet Autonomous Region.
Tibetan cultural influences extend to the neighboring states of Bhutan , Nepal, regions of India such as Sikkim , Ladakh , Lahaul , and Spiti , Northern Pakistan Baltistan or Balti-yul in addition to designated Tibetan autonomous areas in adjacent Chinese provinces.
There are over settlements in Tibet. Lhasa is Tibet's traditional capital and the capital of Tibet Autonomous Region. Lhasa contains a number of significant temples and monasteries, including Jokhang and Ramoche Temple.
Shigatse is the second largest city in the Tibet AR, west of Lhasa. Gyantse and Qamdo are also amongst the largest. It is governed by a People's Government, led by a Chairman.
In practice, however, the Chairman is subordinate to the branch secretary of the Communist Party of China. As a matter of convention, the Chairman has almost always been an ethnic Tibetan, while the party secretary has always been ethnically non-Tibetan.
The Tibetan economy is dominated by subsistence agriculture. Due to limited arable land, the primary occupation of the Tibetan Plateau is raising livestock, such as sheep , cattle, goats , camels , yaks , dzo , and horses.
The dogs of Tibet are twice the size of those seen in India, with large heads and hairy bodies. They are powerful animals, and are said to be able to kill a tiger.
During the day they are kept chained up, and are let loose at night to guard their masters' house. The main crops grown are barley , wheat, buckwheat , rye , potatoes, and assorted fruits and vegetables.
These include Tibetan hats, jewelry silver and gold , wooden items, clothing, quilts, fabrics, Tibetan rugs and carpets.
Forty percent of the rural cash income in the Tibet Autonomous Region is derived from the harvesting of the fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis formerly Cordyceps sinensis ; contributing at least 1.
The Qingzang railway linking the Tibet Autonomous Region to Qinghai Province was opened in , but it was controversial. It controls the expression of the TH1 cytokine, interferon-gamma.
Both Th1 and Th17 cells are crucial in immune regulation and autoimmune disease development. T-bet initiates Th1 lineage development from naive Th precursor cells and directs T cell differentiation to Th1 versus Th T-bet is cooperating with Stat4 signal tranducer and activator of transcription 4 in programming chromatin architecture for Th1 gene expression.
Genetic variations in T-bet are associated with susceptibility to aspirin-induced asthma and nasal polyps. Br J Pharmacol.
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Product Details Recommended Assay References. Description The 4B10 monoclonal antibody specifically binds to human and mouse T-bet.
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