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Historian John Davies , theorises that a worsening climate after around BC lower temperatures and heavier rainfall required more productive land to be defended.
The earliest iron implement found in Wales is a sword from Llyn Fawr which overlooks the head of the Vale of Neath , which is thought to date to about BC.
The cache included weapons, shields, chariots along with their fittings and harnesses, and slave chains and tools.
Many had been deliberately broken and seem to have been votive offerings. Until recently, the prehistory of Wales was portrayed as a series of successive migrations.
The Roman conquest of Wales began in AD 48 and was completed in 78, with Roman rule lasting until Roman rule in Wales was a military occupation, save for the southern coastal region of South Wales east of the Gower Peninsula , where there is a legacy of Romanisation.
Both Caerwent and Carmarthen , also in southern Wales, would become Roman civitates. By AD 47 Rome had invaded and conquered all of southernmost and southeastern Britain under the first Roman governor of Britain.
As part of the Roman conquest of Britain , a series of campaigns to conquer Wales was launched by his successor in 48 and would continue intermittently under successive governors until the conquest was completed in It is these campaigns of conquest that are the most widely known feature of Wales during the Roman era due to the spirited but unsuccessful defence of their homelands by two native tribes, the Silures and the Ordovices.
The Demetae of southwestern Wales seem to have quickly made their peace with the Romans, as there is no indication of war with Rome, and their homeland was not heavily planted with forts nor overlaid with roads.
The Demetae would be the only Welsh tribe to emerge from Roman rule with their homeland and tribal name intact. Wales was a rich source of mineral wealth and the Romans used their engineering technology to extract large amounts of gold, copper, and lead, as well as modest amounts of some other metals such as zinc and silver.
Roman economic development was concentrated in southeastern Britain, with no significant industries located in Wales. The year denotes a significant point in Welsh history, remembered in literature and considered to be the foundation point of several medieval royal dynasties.
In that year the Roman general Magnus Maximus would strip all of western and northern Britain of troops and senior administrators and launch a partly successful bid for imperial power, continuing to rule Britain from Gaul as emperor.
Welsh legend provides a mythic background to this process. In the story of Breuddwyd Macsen Wledig English: The Dream of Emperor Maximus , he is Emperor of Rome and marries a wondrous British woman, telling her that she may name her desires, to be received as a wedding portion.
She asks that her father be given sovereignty over Britain, thus formalising the transfer of authority from Rome back to the Britons themselves. The marriage also makes possible British descendants, a point not lost on medieval kings.
The earliest Welsh genealogies give Maximus the role of founding father for several royal dynasties, including those of Powys and Gwent ,   a role he also played for the rulers of medieval Galloway in Scotland, home to the Roman-era Novantae whose territory was also made independent of Roman rule by Maximus.
Tradition holds that following the Roman departure, Roman customs held on into the 5th century in southern Wales, and that is true in part.
Caerwent continued to be occupied, while Carmarthen was probably abandoned in the late 4th century. Indeed, aside from the many Roman-related finds along the southern coast and the fully romanised area around Caerwent, Roman archaeological remains in Wales consist almost entirely of military roads and fortifications.
When the Roman garrison of Britain was withdrawn in , the various British states were left self-governing. Evidence for a continuing Roman influence after the departure of the Roman legions is provided by an inscribed stone from Gwynedd dated between the late 5th century and mid 6th century commemorating a certain Cantiorix who was described as a citizen cives of Gwynedd and a cousin of Maglos the magistrate magistratus.
One of the reasons for the Roman withdrawal was the pressure put upon the empire's military resources by the incursion of barbarian tribes from the east.
These tribes, including the Angles and Saxons , who later became the English, were unable to make inroads into Wales except possibly along the Severn Valley as far as Llanidloes.
It has been suggested that this battle finally severed the land connection between Wales and the kingdoms of the Hen Ogledd "Old North" , the Brythonic-speaking regions of what is now southern Scotland and northern England , including Rheged , Strathclyde , Elmet and Gododdin , where Old Welsh was also spoken.
Wales was divided into a number of separate kingdoms, the largest of these being Gwynedd in northwest Wales and Powys in east Wales.
When Cadwallon was killed in battle by Oswald of Northumbria , his successor Cadafael ap Cynfeddw also allied himself with Penda against Northumbria, but thereafter Gwynedd, like the other Welsh kingdoms, was mainly engaged in defensive warfare against the growing power of Mercia.
Powys as the easternmost of the major kingdoms of Wales came under the most pressure from the English in Cheshire , Shropshire and Herefordshire.
This kingdom originally extended east into areas now in England, and its ancient capital, Pengwern , has been variously identified as modern Shrewsbury or a site north of Baschurch.
The construction of the earthwork known as Offa's Dyke usually attributed to Offa , King of Mercia in the 8th century may have marked an agreed border.
For a single man to rule the whole country during this period was rare. This is often ascribed to the inheritance system practised in Wales.
All sons received an equal share of their father's property including illegitimate sons , resulting in the division of territories.
However, the Welsh laws prescribe this system of division for land in general, not for kingdoms, where there is provision for an edling or heir to the kingdom to be chosen, usually by the king.
Any son, legitimate or illegitimate, could be chosen as edling and there were frequently disappointed candidates prepared to challenge the chosen heir.
The first to rule a considerable part of Wales was Rhodri Mawr Rhodri The Great , originally king of Gwynedd during the 9th century, who was able to extend his rule to Powys and Ceredigion.
Rhodri's grandson, Hywel Dda Hywel the Good , formed the kingdom of Deheubarth by joining smaller kingdoms in the southwest and had extended his rule to most of Wales by Hywel followed a policy of peace with the English.
On his death in his sons were able to keep control of Deheubarth but lost Gwynedd to the traditional dynasty of this kingdom. Wales was now coming under increasing attack by Viking raiders, particularly Danish raids in the period between and According to the chronicle Brut y Tywysogion , Godfrey Haroldson carried off two thousand captives from Anglesey in , and the king of Gwynedd, Maredudd ab Owain is reported to have redeemed many of his subjects from slavery by paying the Danes a large ransom.
Gruffydd ap Llywelyn was the only ruler to be able to unite Wales under his rule. Originally king of Gwynedd, by he was ruler of Wales and had annexed parts of England around the border.
He ruled Wales with no internal battles  until he was defeated by Harold Godwinson in and killed by his own men. His territories were again divided into the traditional kingdoms.
At the time of the Norman conquest of England in , the dominant ruler in Wales was Bleddyn ap Cynfyn , who was king of Gwynedd and Powys.
By the forces of the Earl of Shrewsbury were ravaging Deheubarth. The killing of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn in led to civil war and gave the Normans an opportunity to seize lands in North Wales.
In Gruffudd ap Cynan , who had just won the throne of Gwynedd from Trahaearn ap Caradog at the Battle of Mynydd Carn was enticed to a meeting with the Earl of Chester and Earl of Shrewsbury and promptly seized and imprisoned, leading to the seizure of much of Gwynedd by the Normans.
In , however, there was a general Welsh revolt against Norman rule, and gradually territories were won back. Gruffudd ap Cynan was eventually able to build a strong kingdom in Gwynedd.
Owain followed his father on the throne of Gwynedd the following year and ruled until his death in Powys also had a strong ruler at this time in Madog ap Maredudd , but when his death in was quickly followed by the death of his heir, Llywelyn ap Madog , Powys was split into two parts and never subsequently reunited.
In Rhys met King Henry II and came to an agreement with him whereby Rhys had to pay a tribute but was confirmed in all his conquests and was later named Justiciar of South Wales.
Rhys held a festival of poetry and song at his court at Cardigan over Christmas which is generally regarded as the first recorded Eisteddfod.
Owain Gwynedd's death led to the splitting of Gwynedd between his sons, while Rhys made Deheubarth dominant in Wales for a time. Out of the power struggle in Gwynedd eventually arose one of the greatest of Welsh leaders, Llywelyn ab Iorwerth , also known as Llywelyn Fawr the Great , who was sole ruler of Gwynedd by  and by his death in was effectively ruler of much of Wales.
The national parks of England and Wales have a distinctive legislative framework and history. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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Views Read Edit View history. Doch schon bald wird es Sie wieder hinaus ziehen, denn es ist die Landschaft, die die wahre Schönheit dieses Landes ausmacht: die wildromantische Küste, die mächtigen Berge von Snowdonia und auch die idyllischen Hügel rings um den Severn.
Lassen Sie sich inspirieren und erleben Sie einen unvergesslichen Urlaub in Wales. Auf England. Oder Sie buchen gleich Ihre komplette Wales-Rundreise.
Immer beliebter wurde in den letzten Jahren in vielen europäischen Ländern der geführte Wanderurlaub mit einem erfahrenen Tour Guide.
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